Sunday, November 23, 2014

GLOBAL VOLCANISM: Global Seismic Uptick - Nine Volcanic Earthquakes At Philippines' Mayon Volcano In The Last 48 Hours!

November 23, 2014 - PHILIPPINES
- At least nine volcanic quakes were recorded from the restive Mayon Volcano in the last 48 hours, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology said Sunday.

Three were registered on Saturday and six on Friday.

In its 8 a.m. update, Phivolcs also recorded an emission of white "moderate to voluminous" steam plumes that drifted west-southwest, west-northwest, northeast, and southeast. Also, it recorded a crater glow at Intensity I Friday night.

Phivolcs likewise observed a crater glow at Intensity I Saturday night.

Also, Phivolcs said Mayon's alert level remains at 3, meaning an eruption is still likely within weeks.

More than 12,000 families were evacuated from their homes in Mayon's danger zone since mid-September, when Phivolcs raised the alert level at Mayon to 3.

Last November 3, the Office of Civil Defense allowed residents in the seven- to eight-kilometer extended danger zone to return home for now.

On November 4, many families whose homes were with in the extended danger zone were allowed to go home.  - GMA Network.

DISASTER IMPACT: Deadly And Powerful Earthquakes Strike Japan And China - Damage Worst Than Thought In Japan After 6.7 Temblor Destroys At Least 50 Homes, Injures 41 People, Collapse Major Roads And Flatten Buildings; And 5 Killed, 54 Injured, And Over 80,000 People Affected After 6.3 Magnitude Tremor Damaged 25,000 Houses And Dislocates 6,200 In China!

This aerial photo shows collapsed houses after a strong earthquake hit Hakuba, Nagano prefecture, central Japan, Sunday, Nov. 23, 2014. The magnitude-6.7
earthquake shook on Saturday night the mountainous area that hosted the 1998 Winter Olympics destroying more than
half a dozen homes in the ski resort town. © AP Photo/Kyodo News

November 23, 2014 - ASIA
- The damage from an overnight earthquake in a mountainous area of central Japan that hosted the 1998 winter Olympics proved more extensive than initially thought. A daylight assessment Sunday found at least 50 homes destroyed in two villages, and 41 people injured across the region, including seven seriously, mostly with broken bones, officials said.

Damage worse than thought in Japanese earthquake

The magnitude-6.7 earthquake struck shortly after 10 p.m. Saturday west of Nagano city at a depth of 5 kilometers (3 miles), the Japan Meteorological Agency said. The agency revised the magnitude and depth from initial estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey recorded a magnitude of 6.2. Since the quake occurred inland, there was no possibility of a tsunami.

Ryo Nishino, a restaurant owner in Hakuba, a ski resort village west of Nagano, told Japanese broadcaster NHK that he had "never experienced a quake that shook so hard. The sideways shaking was enormous." He said he was in the restaurant's wine cellar when the quake struck, and that nothing broke there.

Japan's Nuclear Regulation Authority said no abnormalities were reported at three nuclear power plants in the affected areas. All of Japan's nuclear plants are offline following a magnitude-9.0 earthquake and massive tsunami in 2011 that sent three reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant into meltdown. Fukushima is about 250 kilometers (155 miles) northeast of where Saturday's earthquake occurred.

The hardest-hit area appeared to be Hakuba, which hosted events in the 1998 winter games. At least 43 homes were destroyed there, and 17 people injured, national and local disaster agencies said. Another seven homes were lost in Otari, a nearby village to the north. Non-residential buildings were also destroyed, with officials assessing the extent.

Houses damaged by an earthquake are seen in Hakuba, Nagano prefecture, in this photo taken by Kyodo, Nov. 23, 2014.

This aerial photo shows houses collapsed after a strong earthquake hit Hakuba, Nagano near a ski resort Sunday local time.

Firefighters and rescuers examine buildings collapsed after the 6.8-magnitude earthquake struck Hakuba.

Local residents look at a collapsed house after a strong earthquake hit the area the night before, in Hakuba, Nagano prefecture, on Nov. 23.

An aerial view shows collapsed houses after an earthquake in Hakuba town, Nagano prefecture, in this photo taken by Kyodo on Nov. 23.

Japanese television footage showed buildings in various states of collapse, some flattened and others leaning to one side, and deep cracks in the roads. A landslide spilled onto a railroad track, forcing service to stop. About 200 people from Hakuba and Otari had evacuated to shelters.

Shigeharu Fujimori, a Nagano prefecture disaster management official, said it was fortunate there haven't been any deaths reported despite the extent of the damage.

More than 20 people trapped under collapsed houses were rescued, the National Police Agency told Japan's Kyodo news agency. Japanese television showed police going house to house Sunday morning, calling out to make sure that inhabitants were accounted for.

WATCH: Damage worse than thought in Japanese earthquake.

"The hardest-hit area was in the mountains and sparsely populated, where neighbors have a close relationship and help each other," Fujimori said. "So I don't think anyone has been forgotten or left isolated."

Shinkansen bullet train service in the region was restored after a short interruption. Chubu Electric Power Co. said 200 homes remained without power on Sunday.

The quake has been followed by more than 60 aftershocks, and Meteorological Agency official Yohei Hasegawa urged residents to watch out for landslides. The area was struck by a magnitude-6.7 earthquake the day after the huge March 2011 quake. - AP.

6.8 [quake] jolted central Japan on Saturday evening… felt in the capital Tokyo 180 km away…  an advanced party of Japan’s military had been sent… “the tremor was too strong to stand,” said… an NHK employee. - Reuters.

Helicopter surveys on Sunday showed more extensive damage than earlier thought from an overnight earthquake… footage showed buildings in various states of collapse, some flattened and others leaning… and deep cracks in the roads… The quake was followed by more than 45 aftershocks… [Officials] urged residents to watch out for landslides. - AP.

A powerful 6.8-magnitude earthquake… halted high-speed train service, caused several major roads to collapse and shut down others because of landslides. - Voice of America.

Nagano prefecture government has enforced the disaster relief law… [Officials] warned of possible strong aftershocks… the government has set up a disaster relief office. - Xinhua.

One of the strongest ever felt in recent years by residents… Ryo Nishino, a restaurant owner… “never experienced a quake that shook so hard… shaking was enormous.”… The earthquake was felt across much of northern Japan… the Meteorological Agency… warned of further aftershocks. - AP.

21 aftershocks in the 90 minutes following the quake [and] tremors continued… “an aftershock registering upper 5 could occur in the coming week,” an agency official said… The quake was felt in wide areas from [including] Tohoku in north-eastern Japan… train systems in… Tohoku, Yamagata, Akita, Joetsu and Nagano… temporarily stopped. - ABC Australia.

Footage showed flattened wooden houses… “It’s quite a strong earthquake for an inland one,” an official at the Japanese agency told a midnight press conference. “We are worried about the extent of damage to houses and buildings,” he said… police and municipal officials said they were still scrambling to collect information as they were operating in the dark… The meteorological agency warned strong aftershocks could still occur in the coming week. - AFP.

Japanese officials warn of quake aftershocks
— Officials at Japan’s Meteorological Agency are warning people to be on the alert for aftershocks in the days ahead after a magnitude 6.7 earthquake… The tremor registered intensities of 6-minus on the Japanese scale of 7. - NHK.

Fukushima is about 155 miles northeast of where Saturday’s earthquake occurred. - FOX News.

Five killed, 80,000 affected in earthquake in China

In this Saturday, Nov. 23, 2014 photo, injured people receive medical treatment at a hospital in Kangding County, Sichuan province, China. A strong earthquake
that hit a sparsely populated, mountainous area of western China killed at least five people and injured more than 50 others, officials said Sunday.
(AP Photo/Xinhua, Li Qiaoqiao)

China on Sunday launched an all-out rescue operation after a powerful 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck quake-prone Sichuan Province, killing at least five people and affecting nearly 80,000 others.

Fifty-four people were injured, including six in critical condition and another five suffering severe injuries, latest updates said.

Chinese leaders have urged all-out rescue efforts after the quake hit the Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province yesterday.

"The death toll from the quake rose to five," officials said.

"The provincial and civil affairs authorities must be swift in organising rescue and relief work and do their best to minimise casualties," said President Xi Jinping, who was on a state-visit to Fiji.

Nearly 80,000 people have been affected by the quake and 25,000 houses were damaged. About 6,200 people had been relocated, the provincial civil affair department said in a statement.

A 35-member rescue team of armed police has arrived at Tagong township, the epicenter, two hours after the quake occurred. Six military aircraft, 60 medical staff and nearly 1,000 soldiers and militia are ready for mission call, the state-run Xinhua news agency reported.

Premier Li Keqiang has also ordered immediate verification of the damage and all-out rescue and relief efforts.

He asked state disaster relief authorities to send work teams as appropriate to guide local quake relief.

The China Earthquake Administration and Sichuan Provincial Earthquake Administration launched Grade II emergency response and sent work teams to Kangding. Power facilities, tents and quilts have also been sent to the quake-hit areas.

Sichuan, neighbouring the Tibet Autonomous Region, is a mountainous and quake-prone area.

A massive 8.0-magnitude earthquake struck Wenchuan of the province on May 12, 2008 and left more than 80,000 people dead.

Another 196 people were killed in the 7.0-magnitude quake that hit Lushan in April last year. - ZEE News.

MIDDLE EAST CONFLICT & WORLD WAR III: Israel Issues Warning That It Is Considering Military Strike Against Iran - Jewish Officials Cites "Sunset Clause" In Proposed Comprehensive Deal That Guarantees Iran Path Into The Nuclear Club, Ultimately Cornering Israel Into War!

Israel Air Force planes fly over Tel Aviv.  (Photo credit: IDF SPOKESPERSON'S UNIT)

November 23, 2014 - ISRAEL
- Historic negotiations with Iran will reach an inflection point on Monday, as world powers seek to clinch a comprehensive deal that will, to their satisfaction, end concerns over the nature of its vast, decade-old nuclear program.

But reflecting on the deal under discussion with The Jerusalem Post on the eve of the deadline, Israel has issued a stark, public warning to its allies with a clear argument: Current proposals guarantee the perpetuation of a crisis, backing Israel into a corner from which military force against Iran provides the only logical exit.

The deal on the table

World powers have presented Iran with an accord that would restrict its nuclear program for roughly ten years and cap its ability to produce fissile material for a weapon during that time to a minimum nine-month additional period, from the current three months.

Should Tehran agree, the deal may rely on Russia to convert Iran's current uranium stockpile into fuel rods for peaceful use. The proposal would also include an inspection regime that would attempt to follow the program's entire supply chain, from the mining of raw material to the syphoning of that material to various nuclear facilities across Iran.

Israel's leaders believe the best of a worst-case scenario, should that deal be reached, is for inspections to go perfectly and for Iran to choose to abide by the deal for the entire decade-long period.

But "our intelligence agencies are not perfect," an Israeli official said. "We did not know for years about Natanz and Qom. And inspection regimes are certainly not perfect. They weren't in the case in North Korea, and it isn't the case now – Iran's been giving the IAEA the run around for years about its past activities."

"What's going to happen with that?" the official continued. "Are they going to sweep that under the rug if there's a deal?"

On Saturday afternoon, reports from Vienna suggested the P5+1 – the US, United Kingdom, France, Russia, China and Germany – are willing to stop short of demanding full disclosure of any secret weapon work by Tehran.

Speaking to the Post, a senior US official rejected concern over limited surveillance capabilities, during or after a deal.

"If we can conclude a comprehensive agreement, we will have significantly more ability to detect covert facilities – even after its duration is over – than we do today," the senior US official said. "After the duration of the agreement, the most intrusive inspections will continue: the Additional Protocol – which encompasses very intrusive transparency, and which Iran has already said it will implement – will continue."

But compounding Israel's fears, the proposal Jerusalem has seen shows that mass dismantlement of Iran's nuclear infrastructure – including the destruction, and not the mere warehousing, of its parts – is no longer on the table in Vienna.

"Iran's not being asked to dismantle the nuclear infrastructure," the Israeli official said, having seen the proposal before the weekend. "Right now what they're talking about is something very different. They're talking about Ayatollah Khamenei allowing the P5+1 to save face."

Officials in the Netanyahu government are satisfied that their ideas and concerns have been given a fair hearing by their American counterparts. They praise the US for granting Israel unprecedented visibility into the process.

But while those discussions may have affected the talks at the margins, large gaps – on whether to grant Iran the right to enrich uranium, or allow it to keep much of its infrastructure – have remained largely unaddressed.

"It's like the chemical weapons deal in Syria," the official said. "They didn't just say: Here, let's get rid of the stockpile and the weapons, but we will leave all the plants and assembly lines."

'Sunset clause'

Yet, more than any single enforcement standard or cap included in the deal, Israel believes the Achilles' heel of the proposed agreement is its definitive end date – the sunset clause.

"You've not dismantled the infrastructure, you've basically tried to put limits that you think are going to be monitored by inspectors and intelligence," said the official, "and then after this period of time, Iran is basically free to do whatever it wants."

The Obama administration also rejects this claim. By e-mail, the senior US administration official said that, "'following successful implementation of the final step of the comprehensive solution for its duration, the Iranian nuclear program will be treated in the same manner as that of any non-nuclear weapon state party to the NPT – with an emphasis on non-nuclear weapon."

"That has in no way changed," the American official continued, quoting the interim Joint Plan of Action reached last year.

But the treatment of Iran as any other signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty –189 countries are members, including Iran – would allow Tehran to ultimately acquire "an industrial-sized capability," the Israelis say. "The breakout times [to a nuclear weapon] will be effectively zero."

Israel and world powers seek to maximize the amount of time they would have to identify non-compliance from a nuclear deal, should Iran choose to defy its tenets and build a bomb.

But in the deal under discussion in Vienna, Iran would be able to comply with international standards for a decade and, from Israel's perspective, then walk, not sneak, into the nuclear club.

"You've not only created a deal that leaves Iran as a threshold nuclear power today, because they have the capability to break out quickly if they wanted to," the Israeli official contended. "But you've also legitimized Iran as a military nuclear power in the future."

From the moment this deal is clinched, Israel fears it will guarantee Iran as a military nuclear power. There will be no off ramp, because Iran's reentry into the international community will be fixed, a fait accompli, by the very powers trying to contain it.

"The statement that says we've prevented them from having a nuclear weapon is not a true statement," the Israeli official continued. "What you've said is, you're going to put restrictions on Iran for a given number of years, after which there will be no restrictions and no sanctions. That's the deal that's on the table."

Revisiting the use of force

Without an exit ramp, Israel insists its hands will not be tied by an agreement reached this week, this month or next, should it contain a clause that ultimately normalizes Iran's home-grown enrichment program.

On the surface, its leadership dismisses fears that Israel will be punished or delegitimized if it disrupts an historic, international deal on the nuclear program with unilateral military action against its infrastructure.

By framing the deal as fundamentally flawed, regardless of its enforcement, Israel is telling the world that it will not wait to see whether inspectors do their jobs as ordered.

"Ten, fifteen years in the life of a politician is a long time," the Israeli said, in a vague swipe against the political directors now scrambling in Vienna. "In the life of a nation, it's nothing."

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has threatened the use of force against Iran several times since 2009, even seeking authorization from his cabinet in 2011. Iran's program has since grown in size and scope.

According to his aides, the prime minister's preference is not war, but the continuation of a tight sanctions regime on Iran's economy coupled with a credible threat of military force. Netanyahu believes more time under duress would have led to an acceptable deal. But that opportunity, in his mind, may now be lost.

Whether Israel still has the ability to strike Iran, without American assistance, is an open question. Quoted last month in the Atlantic magazine, US officials suggested that window for Netanyahu closed over two years ago.

But responding to claims by that same official, quoted by Jeffrey Goldberg, over Netanyahu's courage and will, the Israeli official responded sternly: "The prime minister is a very serious man who knows the serious responsibility that rests on his shoulders. He wouldn't say the statements that he made if he didn't mean them."

"People have underestimated Israel many, many times in the past," he continued, "and they underestimate it now." - JPOST.

PLANETARY TREMORS: Global Seismic Uptick - Strong 5.4 and 4.9 Magnitude Earthquakes Strike Off The Coast Of Oregon, No Tsunami Warnings! UPDATE: Seismologist Tracking Nevada Quake Swarm Near Oregon And California - Due To Increase In Activity!

USGS earthquake location map.

November 23, 2014 - OREGON, UNITED STATES
- Two strong earthquakes struck off the coast of Oregon on Sunday, the 23rd of November, 2014.

According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the first temblor hit at 02:01:25 am local time at  43.798°N 128.408°W with a depth of 10.0km or 6 miles and was measured as a 5.4 magnitude.

The second tremor, a 4.9 magnitude, occurred an hour later and also hit at a depth of 10.0km.

USGS shakemap intensity.

Maps released by the USGS show the quake occurred close where the Pacific plate meets the Juan de Fuca plate along the Blano Fracture Zone.

A tsunami warning has not been issued near Oregon, according to the National Tsunami Warning Center.

Oregon - Earthquake History

A strong earthquake in Del Norte County, California, on November 22, 1873, caused chimney damage in many places as far north as Port Orford, Oregon, and east to Jacksonville, California. The tremor was felt from Portland to San Francisco and onboard ships at sea. Chimneys were damaged (intensity VII) in the Portland area from an October 12, 1877, earthquake apparently centered in the Cascade Mountains.

Another severe shock affected Portland on February 3, 1892. Buildings swayed, and terrified people rushed into the street (VI). The earthquake was felt strongly at Astoria and Salem; the total area affected covered about 26,000 square kilometers. Some damage to buildings at Umatilla (VI-VII) resulted from a March 6, 1893, earthquake. Details on this shock are lacking.

On April 2, 1896, three shocks in succession awakened everyone in McMinnville (VI). The main shock was felt at Portland and Salem. A similar occurrence on April 19, 1906, awakened people at Paisley (V). Three additional shocks followed within 1 1/2 hours. A strong earthquake on October 4, 1913, in the Seven Devils Mountains of western Idaho broke windows and dishes (V) in the area. On May 18, 1915, a sharp local earthquake rattled dishes, rocked chairs, and caused some fright (V) at Portland; three shocks were reported.

Seismicity Map - 1973 to March 2012

Three shocks were felt at Fort Klamath (V) on April 14, 1920. The center was probably in the vicinity of Crater Lake. People in a small area around Cascadia felt an earthquake on February 25, 1921 (V). A shock that was probably rather strong in an unsettled region of southern Oregon occurred on January 10, 1923. Plaster fell at Alturas, California, and the tremor was felt strongly (V) at Lakeview, Oregon. The felt area extended to Klamath Falls. Another earthquake was felt widely over a sparsely settled area in eastern Oregon on April 8, 1927. The center was apparently in eastern Baker County; the maximum intensity (V) was noticed at Halfway and Richland.

A damaging earthquake occurred at 11:08 PM PST on July 15, 1936, near the State line between Milton-Freewater, Oregon, and Walla Walla, Washington. The magnitude 5.75 shock affected an area of about 272,000 square kilometers in the two States and adjacent Idaho. Ground cracking was observed about 6.5 kilometers west of Freewater, and there were marked changes in the flow of well water (VII). Many chimneys were damaged at the roof level in Freewater; in addition, plaster was broken, and walls cracked. Similar damage was reported from Umapine. Total damage amounted to $100,000. There were numerous aftershocks up to November 17; more than 20 moderate shocks occurred during the night, and stronger ones were felt (V) on July 18 and August 4 and 27.

A shock of intensity VI affected about 13,000 square kilometers in the vicinity of Portland on December 29, 1941. A downtown display window was shattered, and a few other windows were broken in other parts of Portland. The earthquake was also felt strongly at Hillsboro, Sherwood (where many were frightened), and Yamhill. The felt region extended into Washington; Vancouver and Woodland experienced minor damage.

On April 13, a major earthquake (magnitude 7.0) caused eight deaths and an estimated $25 million damage at Olympia, Washington, and a broad area around the capital city. The depth of focus was estimated to be slightly greater than normal, which, in part, accounted for the large felt area - 388,000 square kilometers in the United States. In Oregon, widespread damage was observed, several injuries occurred at Astoria and Portland. A maximum intensity of VIII was experienced at Clatskanie and Rainier, where many chimneys twisted and fell, and there was considerable damage to brick and masonry.

Minor damage in the Portland area resulted from a December 15, 1953, shock. There was one report of a cracked chimney and slight damage to fireplace tile (VI). Additional reports of plaster cracking were received from Portland and Roy, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington. The total felt area covered about 7,700 square kilometers.

Similar damage occurred at Salem on November 16, 1957, from an earthquake felt over a land area of 11,600 square kilometers in northwestern Oregon. The tremor frightened all in the city (VI) and caused some cracked plaster in West Salem.

On August 18, 1961, another earthquake caused minor damage at Albany and Lebanon, south of the 1957 center. The magnitude 4.5 shock was felt (VI) by all in the two cities. Two house chimneys were toppled, and plaster cracked. The felt region extended into Cowlitz County, Washington; the total area was about 18,000 square kilometers. Portland experienced another moderately strong shock on November 6, 1961. Slight plaster cracking (VI) was the principal damage reported. Also, part of a chimney fell, and windows and lights broke. The earthquake was felt over a large area (about 23,000 square kilometers) of northwestern Oregon and southwestern Washington.

A series of earthquakes near the Oregon-California border began on May 26, 1968, and continued daily through June 11. At Adel, old chimneys fell or were cracked, and part of an old rock cellar wall fell (VI) from a magnitude 4.7 tremor on June 3. Some ground fissures were noted in Bidwell Creek Canyon, near Fort Bidwell, California. The total felt area in the two States covered 18,000 square kilometers.

Numerous other shocks located in California, Idaho, Nevada, Washington, and offshore points affected places in Oregon. The 1959 Hebgen Lake, Montana, earthquake was also felt in the State; slight damage was reported at Richland. - USGS.

Quake swarms drawing more scrutiny - Seismologists are gathering further information about ­a recent increase in activity

Seismologists have taken steps to better track an earthquake swarm in the sparsely populated northwest corner of Nevada near Oregon and California.

The placement of seismographs closer to the activity will improve experts’ ability to locate temblors and gain more information about them, said officials at the University of Nevada, Reno’s Nevada Seismological Laboratory.

No major damage has been reported since the swarm began in July around the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, about 40 miles southeast of Lakeview and 250 miles north of Reno. The area is home to scattered ranches and farms.

“We’ve been in contact with local residents, and they’ve been very helpful in finding locations to install this additional instrumentation,” lab director Graham Kent said in a statement. “Residents expressed an eagerness to help, as they are feeling the daily barrage of magnitude 3 and 4 quakes.”

About 1,350 quakes have been recorded during the swarm, but seismologists have been unable to locate thousands more because of the small number of seismic stations in the remote desert region.

They’re calling it the strongest such swarm in Nevada’s recent history, with 12 magnitude-4.0-plus temblors and 112 quakes magnitude 3 or above. The largest two events — both magnitude 4.7 — shook the area on Nov. 6 and Nov. 7. Other swarms were felt near Hawthorne in 2011 and in Reno in 2008.

Kindergartners duck and cover during an earthquake and tsunami drill at Blossom Gulch Elementary School in Coos Bay. University of Nevada
seismologists are tracking swarms of small quakes on the Oregon border. (Jeff Barnard/The Associated Press)

This week saw about 50 small quakes, including several measuring magnitude 3 and others measuring magnitude 4.0 on Friday and 4.3 on Nov. 17, said Ken Smith, seismic network manager of the seismological lab. “The activity has quieted down somewhat this week, but it has had slowdown periods throughout, so we are still closely monitoring the sequence,” Smith said Friday. “The sequence, although slowing down somewhat, is still not over.”

There’s a small increase in the probability of a larger event following such swarms, experts said, but large quakes can’t be predicted.

“Right now, it’s not making much impact on the nearest communities, but if this gets into the magnitude-5 range a couple of communities will start to see an impact, and if it reaches magnitude 6.0, which is always a possibility in Nevada, we could see some impacts on people and damage to structures,” Kent said.

Nevada, which is laced by faults, is the third most seismically active state in the nation behind California and Alaska.

Seven temblors of magnitude 6.5 or higher jolted the state from 1900 to 1954, with the last occurring east of Fallon in 1954 when two of magnitude 7 hit four minutes apart. A magnitude-6.0 temblor near the northeast Nevada town of Wells on Feb. 21, 2008, was the biggest in the state in four decades, causing nearly $10 million in damage.

Bill Hammond of the university’s Nevada Geodetic Laboratory said that while some residents wonder if the latest swarm is related to an extinct volcano in the Sheldon wildlife refuge, experts think it stems from the region’s faults.

“However, conclusively ruling out a volcanic source will require the additional seismic and geodetic measurements closer to the events,” Hammond said. - The Register Guard.